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him. " Since it is English that an English gentleman will have
constant use of, that is the language he should chiefly cultivate,
and wherein most care should be taken to polish and perfect his
style. . . I am not here speaking against Greek and Latin; I
think they ought to be studied, and the Latin at least understood
well by every gentleman. But whatever foreign languages a
young man meddles with (and the more he knows the better),
that which he should critically study, and labour to get a facility,
clearness, and elegancy to express himself in, should be his own ;
and to this purpose he should daily be exercised in it."* Even
more important for subsequent educational developments is his
argument for the inclusion of a handicraft among the subjects
of a gentleman's study. " The busy inclination of children being
always to be directed to something that may be useful to them,
the advantages proposed from what they are set about may be
considered of two kinds : (i) Where the skill itself that is got by
exercise is worth the having. This skill not only in languages
and learned sciences, but in painting, turning, gardening, tem-
pering, and working in iron, and all other useful arts, is worth
the having, (2) Where the exercise itself, without any considera-
tion, is necessary or useful for health." f That is not the whole
case for manual training, but it is an important part of it; and it
had its influence with later educators.

To complete the account of Locke's educational doctrines,
it is necessary to turn now to the essay, Of the Conduct of the
Understanding. The essential idea of the essay may be given
in a sentence : " We are born with faculties and powers capable
of almost anything, such at least as would carry us farther than
can easily be imagined ; but it is only the exercise of those powers
which gives us ability and skill in anything. ... As it is in
the body, so it is in the mind: practice makes it what it is." J
The point of view in the essay, it will be noted, is completely
different from that of the Thoughts. The education contem-
plated in the latter is quite specific—it is a preparation for a
particular kind of life ; that contemplated in the former is quite
general—it is the preparation of the intellect for any kind of
life. Or putting the contrast rather differently: the Thoughts
states the aim of education in objective terms, as consisting in the
acquisition of certain forms of knowledge and skill; the essay,

* §   189.              f  §  303.              J  §  4.